GLYCOBIOLOGY

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Glycobiology is the study of glyconutrients. Although the first monosaccharides were identified in 1880 glycobiology is a fairly new field of research.
How did this fascinating research start? Early studies into this subject were conducted in Japan with elementary research into the carbohydrate group that began after the Second World War. Research started to accelerate in the 1960s as scientists began to study glycoconjugates, plant enzymes, and sugars. In the 1970s work intensified as more scientists became interested and started joining together. By the ’80s work spread to the West. In the West, early research was done in the 1980s with sugars. However, the actual study of glyconutrients (glycobiology) really started to accelerate in the 1990s. Since then a wealth of information has been unearthed and is revolutionizing healthcare and the treatment of many diseases and illnesses. It is a new and emerging area of nutritional science that even doctors have little knowledge about.
Glycobiology is an important discovery for your immune system. Science and medicine have long tried to understand the code by which the cells in the body communicate with one another in order for its complex functions to occur. For example, how does your digestive system know which food components to absorb into the bloodstream and which to ignore?  Or which cells to attack and destroy and which to protect and nurture?  That code has now been broken.  Glyconutrients undertake this role.  Researchers proclaim it to be the most important discovery in the history of medicine … the key to a long, healthy life.

What are glyconutrients?

Glyconutrients are plant carbohydrates (monosaccharides). There are over 200 carbohydrates or biological sugars but only 8 are essential to bodily function.

These are:


• Fucose
• Galactose
• Glucose
• Mannose
• N-acetylglucosamine
• N-acetylgalactosamine
• N-acetylneuraminic acid (a sialic acid).
• Xylose

These 8 essential glyconutrients play an essential role in bodily function because they provide the key to communication between all cells in the human body. We can think of them as the alphabet of cell-to-cell communication. Unfortunately, only two of these eight sugars are in our diet:  glucose and galactose. 

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Think of it like typing an email. If you were trying to type a really important email, but you only had one fourth of the letters of the alphabet on your keyboard, how would it work? Do you think the recipient would understand the email very well? When your body doesn't have the "letters" or glyconutrients it needs to communicate, the immune system starts breaking down. But when your cells have a proper glyconutrient structure they can communicate which each other. Now they can identify the damaged and "sick" cells and then kill or repair these cells as necessary. When the body's immune system has what it needs, it recognizes sites of dysfunction and can repair the damage.
Glyconutrients will help you by giving your cells the building blocks they need to function so that your body can heal, protect & repair itself as it was designed to do.

Every cell in our body –all 600 trillion of them- needs glyconutrients

History of glyconutrients:

We know glyconutrients are the gatekeepers of the cell. Nothing can get in or out of the cell without going through​ these glyconutrients. They are what keep out viruses and harmful bacteria. They are necessary for receiving vitamins and minerals into the cell. For example, the body can have an abundance of calcium but unless these glyconutrients are in place it cannot be taken into bone cells. These glyconutrients should coat the surface of every cell in the entire body. Their functions are extremely diverse and absolutely necessary. If these glyconutrients are not present a complete breakdown of proper functioning could occur. Glyconutritional supplements are based on a new understanding in the biochemistry of how the human body maintains health at the cellular level.
Healthy cells lead to healthy tissue; healthy tissue leads to healthy organs; and healthy organs leads to healthy bodies.

All living cells in the human body have glycoproteins on their surfaces. When healthy, attached to these glycoproteins are strands of glyconutrients protruding outward from each cell. It is these glyconutrients that allow cells to communicate with other cells when they touch. If these glyconutrients are lacking in a person's diet, cells cannot recognize (through cellular communication) a disease or illness and people then could get sick. Proper cell-to-cell communication is how the human body heals itself.

If these sugars are lacking then the body is forced to make them (through a backup system), which uses hundreds of enzymes and energy. Our bodies cannot always make them if our enzymes are lacking. Lacking just one enzyme can prevent the body from making all of the sugars.

Many times the human body cannot make enough of the glyconutrients and cells are unable to communicate. In the case of cancer (an under active immune disorder), the B cells may not recognize the cancer (a possible cellular miscommunication) and a person may then get cancer. In the case of lupus, MS and type 1 diabetes, the immune system is overactive and attacks the body. This is primarily because the suppressor cells in the immune system do not get the cellular message to shut down the immune system (a possible cellular miscommunication) after the now-aggressive immune system successfully recognized and destroyed a disease-causing virus, bacteria or other toxin. Some of the toxins people continue to get into their bodies include Aspartame, Alloxan, chlorine and chloramines.

1880 - Monosaccharides were first identified.

1952 - Fresh Aloe gel heals radiation burns on rabbits.

1970 - 500 glycobiology papers published.

1976 - Eight essential sugars were identified in glycoproteins and glycolipids.

1980 - 1500 glycobiology papers published.

1990 - 4000 glycobiology papers published.

1990 - Role of carbohydrates involved in intercellular communication and immune function described in BioTechnology Vol 8.

1995 - Cell surface sugars were reported necessary for normal immune
          function.

1996 - Harper's Biochemistry, Murray, et al.: the chapter on glycoproteins
          focuses on the 8 necessary sugars used in glycoproteins and
          glycolipids for cellular communication.

1998 - Acta Anatomica special March issue on glycoscience; reports the
          information content of biological sugar combinations exceeds the
  DNA code.

1998 - Finding that galactose and mannose are "essential" sugars, not
          synthesized from glucose.

1999 - Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine Winner was for the
          the discovery that (glyco) proteins have intrinsic signals that govern
         their transport and localization in the cell.

2000 - 8000 glycobiology papers published.

2001 - Science March 23 issue features "Carbohydrates and
         glycobiology"; reviews structural and functional uses of 8 critical
         sugars in cellular physiology.

2001 - NIH grants consortium $34 million to study cell-cell communication
          interactions.

2002 - Scientific American: July "Sweet Medicine: Building Better Drugs
          from Sugars."

2002 - New Scientist Archive: October story depicts glycobiology as the
          future of immunology, neurology, developmental biology, and
          disease research.

2003 - M.I.T. Technology Review: February: "Glycomics" identified as
         "One of 10 Emerging Technologies That Will Change the World."

2004 - DVD - Glyconutrients and Stem Cell Production by H. Reginald
          McDaniel, M.D.

2004 –Glyconutrients and Stem Cell Production DVD by H. Reginald
          McDaniel, M.D.

2004 –Accredited & Certification by University of Miami School of Medicine,
          Division of Complementary Medicine, November.

2006 –EXPLORE, November/December 2006, Vol 2, No 6, “Glyconutrients:
          The State of the Science and the Impact of Glycomics”, by Victor
          Sierpina, MD and Robert Murray, MD, PhD. Continuing Medical
          Education (CME) is designated by the University of Minnesota.

2007 –April. Medline – PubMed.gov has over 425,000 articles that refer to “glycoprotein”

Cell-to-cell communication

Cellular communication is literally the most important concept in nutrition, and when we support this communication process we are empowering every single cell and every single part of the body to function the way it is supposed to.
This can be described as a network communication protocol or the language of biological cellular information similar to amino acids and nucleic acids, but with unsurpassed coding capacity.

Every cell in your body is surrounded by monosaccharides. There are eight that are essential. These monosaccharides can change their configurations or communication messages thousands of times per second. Cells actually touch each other in order to communicate. Dysfunction and disease occur when the components necessary for cell-to-cell communication are absent or are in short supply.

There are different alphabets, languages, and forms of communicating. In this context, there is also a very unique system called cell-to-cell communication. The reason we are alive (healthy or sick) is that there is a communication process going on within our own bodies.

Cellular communication is much more complex than our alphabet and it uses 8 basic forms in this process. To construct our alphabet we, human
beings use 4 basic geometrical forms. To construct our cellular alphabet our body is using 8 basic forms called glyconutrients. If present cells can “talk”.

Health Benefits

The Essential glyconutrients work best as a team and most have overlapping functions in the body, so supplementation with essential sugars works best when they are taken in combination. When formulated together just right, the absorption of each glyconutrient is enhanced. All the 8 glyconutrients help the cells to communicate, but they also have other powerful health benefits that are unique to each one of them. Read on to learn about the unique health benefits and research related to each one of these special monosaccharides.
Although two of these sugars -glucose, and galactose- are found in the food we eat their presence is important when the other 6 sugars are taken.
The essential glyconutrients work best as a team and most have overlapping functions in the body, so supplementation with essential sugars works best when they are taken in combination. When formulated together, the absorption of each glyconutrient is enhanced. Of course, Glycell contains all eight essential sugars.
Mannose, Fucose, Xylose, N-Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylgalactosamine, and N-Acetylneuraminic acid are difficult to find in our modern diet.
All of the eight glyconutrients help the cells to communicate, but they also have other powerful health benefits that are unique to each one of them.

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8 Essential Glyconutrients 

All of the eight Glyconutrients help the cell to communicate, but they also have other powerful health benefits that are unique to each one of them.

The benefits of the eight natural essential Glyconutrients are:

MANNOSE

After years of studies on the aloe vera plant, its

"active component" was discovered to be Mannose.

​​

  • Prevents bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections.

  • Lowers cholesterol.

  • Good for skin enhancement.

  • Necessary for the production of cytokines, which fight invaders.

  • Major role in cell-to-cell communication.

  • Stimulates collagen synthesis

  • Prompts anti-inflammatory activity and tissue regeneration.

  • Lowers blood sugar and triglyceride levels in diabetic patients.

  • Plays an important role in vision.

  • Crucial in joint protection, especially in cases of rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Reduces tumor growth, by activating natural killer cells, which are involved in the elimination of cancer cells.

SOURCES

Aloe vera gel (acemannan is a chain

of mannose molecules), ground fenugreek,

capsicum, shiitake mushroom, ripe red

currants, ripe tomatoes, guar gum, and kelp.

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GLUCOSE

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Glucose is created from carbon dioxide and water through plant photosynthesis. It is important to the cells as an energy source. Without enough glucose in your body, you lose consciousness, go into a coma and eventually die. Too much glucose can raise insulin levels, leading to obesity and diabetes; but too little can cause hypoglycemia or worse, insulin shock (diabetic coma). The glucose in Glycell is from a pre-digestive form and not digestive glucose. A pre-digestive form is not bad for diabetics.

  • A potent fast-energy source that can be released directly into the bloodstream.

  • Enhances memory.

  • Stimulates calcium absorption which aids in strong bones.

  • Glucose metabolism is disturbed in depression, manic-depression, anorexia, and bulimia.

  • Vital to brain function.

  • Enhances cell-to-cell communication.

SOURCES

Kelp and aloe vera gel

XYLOSE

Xylose is a special carbohydrate that has natural antifungal and antibacterial properties. Research studies have suggested that stomach cancer and colon cancer may be prevented with the help of xylose. Unlike regular sweeteners, xylose sugar has proven not to cause any dental problems. Some companies have substituted xylose in place of sucrose or fructose in chewing gum or toothpaste. It has been shown that xylose absorption is decreased in some patients with intestinal disorders, including colitis.

 

  • Has antibacterial and antifungal properties.

  • May help prevent cancer of the digestive tract.

  • Promotes the growth of healthy Intestinal flora.

  • Healthy intestines create the proper manufacture and absorption of all nutrients. (Important in strengthening the immune system to help fight off any type of illness).

  • Does not cause dental cavities.

  • Is important for cell-to-cell communication.

  • Its ability to discourage the binding of allergens to mucous membranes.

SOURCES
It is found in aloe vera gel, kelp, raspberries, psyllium, broccoli, spinach, corn, eggplant, and green beans.

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GALACTOSE

Galactose is the building block of carbohydrate chains associated with lipids (glycolipids) and proteins (glycoproteins). Galactose is also present in human breast milk.

 

  • Enhances wound healing.

  • Increases calcium absorption.

  • Triggers long-term memory formation.

  • Promotes healthy gut bacteria (microflora).

  • Essential for proper brain development of young children and is in fact termed by some as "the brain sugar".

  • Prompts anti-inflammatory activity.

  • Inhibits tumor growth.

  • Enhances cellular communication.  

 

SOURCES

Galactose is found in many foods and is found in nearly all ripe fruits and vegetables but also in dairy products. It is also found in fenugreek and kelp.

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FUCOSE

Xylose is a special carbohydrate that has natural antifungal and antibacterial properties. Research studies have suggested that stomach cancer and colon cancer may be prevented with the help of xylose. Unlike regular sweeteners, xylose sugar has proven not to cause any dental problems. Some companies have substituted xylose in place of sucrose or fructose in chewing gum or toothpaste. It has been shown that xylose absorption is decreased in some patients with intestinal disorders, including colitis.

 

  • Has antibacterial and antifungal properties.

  • May help prevent cancer of the digestive tract.

  • Promotes the growth of healthy Intestinal flora.

  • Healthy intestines create the proper manufacture and absorption of all nutrients. (Important in strengthening the immune system to help fight off any type of illness).

  • Does not cause dental cavities.

  • Is important for cell-to-cell communication.

  • Its ability to discourage the binding of allergens to mucous membranes.

SOURCES
It is found in aloe vera gel, kelp, raspberries, psyllium, broccoli, spinach, corn, eggplant, and green beans.

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N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE

Research into this saccharide has been limited, yet it has been shown to be essential for cell-cell communication. Patients with heart disease have lower than normal levels of N-acetylgalactosamine. There is mounting evidence that it can help fight the growth of some cancers. Mother's breast milk has a high concentration of this sugar. Studies have confirmed that levels of       N-acetylgalactosamine are changed in certain diseases. This suggests that  N-acetylgalactosamine plays an important role in the prevention of those diseases.


* Heart disease patients have lower-than-normal levels of this saccharide.
* May help in the prevention of inflammation, and removal of free radicals.
* May help in the formation of collagen and in healthy joint function
  (Used as an arthritis remedy).
* Inhibits growth of tumors.
* Important role in the immune system.
* Plays a significant role in the etiology of joint inflammation and could be
  important in such conditions as rheumatoid arthritis.
* Extremely important for optimal vision.

SOURCE
Found in bovine, red algae called dumontiacease and shiitake mushroom.

N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC
ACID

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N-acetylneuraminic acid is more commonly referred to as sialic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid is abundant in human breast milk and has been shown to be particularly important for brain development and learning, and is an immune modulator that affects the viscosity of mucus, which in turn repels bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. Animal studies indicate that N-acetylneuraminic acid improves both memory and performance, and levels of this saccharide decrease with age.

 

  • Important for brain development and learning.

  • Repels bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens.

  • Has immune-modulatory activity.

  • Lowers the LDL (bad cholesterol) and raises HDL (good cholesterol) levels.

  • Prevents influenza A and influenza B strains.

  • Increases fertility, and blood coagulation.

  • Lowers the severity of allergies and asthmatic bronchial spasms.

SOURCES
Is found in hen’s eggs, and whey protein isolate.

N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE

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This glyconutrient can be very helpful for the proper maintenance of joints and can reverse (or prevent) cartilage and joint damage/inflammation. The popular supplement glucosamine, which is now widely recognized for its ability to fight arthritic conditions, is derived from n-acetyl-glucosamine.

 

  • Helps repair cartilage.

  • Increases the range of motion for those with (osteo-) arthritis.

  • May also help repair the mucosal-lining defensive barrier implicated in Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and interstitial cystitis.

  • Has the ability to reduce the progression of in vitro cancers.

  • Has an antiviral property.

  • Decreases insulin secretion.

  • Immune modulator with anti-tumor properties and activity against HIV.

  • Vital to learning and nerve function.

  • Decreases pain and inflammation.

  • Helps generalized wound repair.

SOURCE
Shiitake mushroom and bovine

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"There are currently over 2000 clinical studies worldwide, which prove the positive health benefits of Glyconutritions"

Every cell in our body needs Glyconutrients

What do glyconutrients have to do with raw food health?

We gain our main source of nutrition from the foods that we eat in our daily diets. From that, we don’t get the number of glyconutrients that we need to stay healthy. Unhealthy nutrition can lead to an unhealthy you.
Why are our diets deficient in glyconutrients? The so-called fresh fruits and vegetables we buy today have few glyconutrients (or nutritional value at all) because they are often grown in nutrient-deficient soil, picked before they ripen naturally, gassed, irradiated, artificially ripened, stored for days, weeks, or months, cooked, frozen, canned, processed, refined, pasteurized, genetically engineered, etc. Cooking and processing deplete glyconutrients further.
If we are deficient in the 8 essential sugars, our body cells will eventually lack the communication system necessary to maintain good health.

Raw food health

Raw food health is believed by many to be the ideal. Our bodies are designed to process food raw. When we cook the food we eat, many important nutrients get destroyed and some nutrients even get changed into harmful chemicals.

This allows the body to deal with the toxins from the cooked food and allows a minimal build-up of toxins in the body. (As fast as they come in, your body can take them out)
Raw food contains enzymes, which are believed to react with other enzymes in our bodies to aid in digestion.
A bacterium on raw food boosts our immune system and populates our digestive tract with good flora. This then results in optimal absorption of the good stuff in our food.

Glyconutrients are 8 essential sugars, which coat the surface of every cell in the human body. Without these sugars, our bodies cannot communicate.
Raw, Living food is what we were designed to eat.
Raw food health consists of uncooked fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains. Included in this are other foods such as seaweeds, raw carob powder, cold pressed olive oil, and certain spices and seasonings.
The 8 essential glyconutrients are found in plants that we eat as well as plants that are not common in our diet, such as aloe vera.
These nutrients go further than just raw food. The food must be vine-ripened and consumed very soon after leaving the plant. For example, the glyconutrients in an aloe leaf are no longer present within 2 - 4 hours after cutting off the leaf.
So if you're looking to get the right nutrients in the raw food, you have to eat it from the garden or find some other way of supplementing.
Glycobiology has also found that beneficial bacteria in the colon break down polysaccharides into monosaccharides (glyconutrients). But the bacterial content of modern people is different from our ancestors and so this process is less efficient.
Green harvesting allows long-distance transport and allows fruit and vegetables to be stored for lengthy periods, but most of the essential glyconutrients are found only in food that is ripened on the vine/tree and they remain in the fruit or vegetable for only 48 hours after picking.

Consider the carrot:

Green harvesting loses up to 25% of its nutrients

Transporting loses up to 25% of its remaining nutrients

Storage loses up to 50% of its remaining nutrients

Canning loses up to 83% of its remaining nutrients

Cooking loses up to 50% of its remaining nutrients.

This leaves the carrot with 2.39% of its original nutrient content.

At the same time that our food has been reducing in nutrients, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic degenerative disease have been increasing alarmingly started to occur in younger age groups. A growing mountain of evidence seems to show that these diseases are mostly caused by a dietary deficiency: One of them being glyconutrients that are missing from our diet. A dietary deficiency cannot be corrected with drugs or anything else, other than the missing nutrients.

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Toxins, Free Radicals and Antioxidants

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We all live in a toxic environment. No matter where we live or how careful we are, we can't avoid environmental toxins. They are in the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the water we drink all over the planet. What is particularly worrying are the high levels of pesticides in our homes, considerably higher than the levels we are exposed to outdoors.

Free radicals are produced when our cells create energy and when we are exposed to pollutants or toxins such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, or pesticides. If allowed to go unquenched, free radicals can cause damage to the body's cells. The cells that line the arteries, the fat cells in the blood, the immune cells, and so on can all be affected by free radicals. And because of this, free radical damage (or oxidation) has been linked to the formation of every degenerative disease known including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and the aging process itself.
Free radicals are unstable chemicals formed in the body during normal metabolism or exposure to environmental toxins such as air, food, and water pollution. Free radicals help our bodies to generate energy and fight infections, but when we have too many free radicals they attack healthy cells causing them to age prematurely. The action of rust is probably the best analogy of how excess free radicals work in our bodies.

We are being constantly exposed to increasing amounts of free radicals due to increasing environmental toxins in our living and working environment. At the same time, our intake of protective cell pigments is decreasing. Free radicals are known to cause or exacerbate most (and especially chronic) diseases such as cancer, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, macular degeneration, and cataracts.
Free radical damage mutates the body's future DNA and RNA cell blueprint message by pairing with electrons in the DNA chains, ultimately leading to cellular electronic imbalance. The inevitable blurring of the DNA and RNA blueprint will occur as mutated cells replicate this is aging. In other cases, excess free radical damage can cause DNA messages to accelerate the cell division process into a state of panic whereby DNA is unable to withstand the rate of degeneration - this is cancer.

Antioxidants are substances or nutrients in our food, which can prevent or slow oxidative damage to our body. Phytonutrients act as antioxidants, which help form, the body's defense against free radical damage to cells.
Antioxidants act as free radical scavengers and prevent and repair the damage done by the free radicals
The focus on wellness means a focus on supporting the body in its amazing ability to heal, repair, regenerate, regulate and protect itself. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle does this, which includes ensuring that our body has ample quantities of essential nutrients. This means ensuring we include in our diet the essential amino acids (proteins), essential fatty acids (omega 3, 6, and 9), essential carbohydrates (8 essential glyconutrients), phytosterols, antioxidants, enzymes, fiber and vitamins, and minerals. We also need to have adequate clean water, exercise, and low levels of stress.

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